For most Westerners, the Orient refers to China, Japan, and Korea, countries that use Chinese characters. For this reason, most Westerners associate the Orient with Chinese characters, Buddhism, bamboo; plum blossoms, kimonos, and women, etc. (Interestingly Oriental men are not included when women included.) See my collection of "Orientalism.")
Before Buddhism was introduced from India, Chinese religions included Taoism and Confucianism. When Buddhism was first imported, the Chinese understood it through the philosophical framework of Taoism. However, the Chinese gradually developed their own style of Buddhism, "Chan Buddhism." It flourished during the Tang Dynasty (7-10th century) and lasted until 13th century in China. Although the Chinese developed their own style Buddhism, it was just as exogenous as Christianity. Consequently, during the 12th century of the Southern Song Dynasty, Chu Hsi eventually developed "Neo-Confucianism, which includes a moral, ethical and metaphysical philosophy of the cosmos. This is in contrast to Confucianism, which only involved secular ethnics, as Confucius said, "How can I know about death when I don't understand life?" Neo-Confucianism lasted until the early 20th century before China was conquered by Western science. Indeed, it flourished for more than 700 years in China. Similarly the Joseon Dynasty (14-19th century) of Korea was in the philosophical framework of Neo-Confucianism. For this reason, Chan Buddhism was not developed in China and Korea, while it was lasted until the Edo period (17-19th century) in Japan. This may be the reason why Zen is more famous than Chan.
The Chu Hsi school represented the golden age of Korean religious philosophy. Indeed, metaphysical research reached its apex in the scholarly debate between Yi Hwang and Ki Dae Seung, which was lasted for eight years. I can see the issues of the 21th century in their debate. My Polyvore sets concern some issues of their debate. (See www.polyvore.com/cgi/set?id=36088577 and www.polyvore.com/cgi/set?id=50491911)